Particle-beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA)
Here, intense particle beam drivers are used to drive the plasma wave. Advantages of this approach are
the fact that such systems are practically dephasing-free, can be dark-current-free and that the peak transverse fields allow to use comparably low ionization thresholds for injection methods such as Trojan Horse. Electron beams from state-of-the-art linacs can be used to power the PWFA stage, or electron beams from hybrid LWFA2PWFA stages.